Tuesday, 22 December 2015

FEMALE GENITAL MUTILATION IN ISLAM


FEMALE GENITAL MUTILATION IN ISLAM

Female Genital Mutilation(FGM) is part of Islam. It means total or partial closure of vaginal opening. It is mandatory for women to be circumcised in Islam as have been advise by Prophet Muhammad. The reasons for FGM  in Islam are manifold like keeping the girls from committing fornication, keeping the vagina firm and saving the honour of the family, as in Islam honour of the family is associated with the women of the family. If any of the women of the family is found to be involved in any kind of illegitimate sexual relationship, It is deemed to be honourable to kill that woman. That is why you find a lot of honour killings in the Muslim countries. Any how lets read a few teachings from the Sunnah(life) of  the Prophet Muhammad.  

Sunnah Of Prophet 

Aishah narrated that :
the Prophet said: "When the circumcised meets the circumcised then Ghusl is required."   (Jamia Tirmadi 109 , Book Reference : Book 1, Hadith 109, English Reference: Vol.1, Book 1, Hadith 109).  

It was narrated that 'Aishah the wife of the Prophet said:
"When the two circumcised parts meet, then bath is obligatory. The Messenger of Allah and I did that, and we bathed."( Sunan Ibn Maja Vol.1, Book 1, Hadith 608, Arabic Reference : Book1 Hadith 651).

Above two Ahadith are telling that during intercourse when two circumcised parts meet then after intercourse bath is necessary.
Umm 'Alqama related that when the daughters of 'A'isha's brother were circumcised, 'A'isha was asked, "Shall we call someone to amuse them?" "Yes," she replied. 'Adi was sent for and he came to them. 'A'isha passed by the room and saw him singing and shaking his head in rapture - and he had a large head of hair. 'Uff!' she exclaimed, 'A shaytan! Get him out! Get him out!'" (Adaab ul Mufrad book 53 , Hadith 1247 , Arabic Reference : Book 1 Hadith 1247)

Typology of FGM according to WHO

Complete typology with sub-divisions:
  • Type I — Partial or total removal of the clitoris and/or the prepuce (clitoridectomy).
    • When it is important to distinguish between the major variations of Type I mutilation, the following subdivisions are proposed: Type Ia, removal of the clitoral hood or prepuce only; Type Ib, removal of the clitoris with the prepuce.
  • Type II — Partial or total removal of the clitoris and the labia minora, with or without excision of the labia majora (excision).
    • When it is important to distinguish between the major variations that have been documented, the following subdivisions are proposed: Type IIa, removal of the labia minora only; Type IIb, partial or total removal of the clitoris and the labia minora; Type IIc, partial or total removal of the clitoris, the labia minora and the labia majora.
    • Note also that, in French, the term ‘excision’ is often used as a general term covering all types of female genital mutilation.
  • Type III — Narrowing of the vaginal orifice with creation of a covering seal by cutting and appositioning the labia minora and/or the labia majora, with or without excision of the clitoris (infibulation).
    • Type IIIa, removal and apposition of the labia minora; Type IIIb, removal and apposition of the labia majora.
  • Type IV — All other harmful procedures to the female genitalia for non-medical purposes, for example: pricking, piercing, incising, scraping and cauterization.
  • http://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/topics/fgm/overview/en/


No Health Benefits, Only Harm
Immediate consequences of FGM include severe pain and bleeding, shock, difficulty in passing urine, infections, injury to nearby genital tissue and sometimes death. The procedure can result in death through severe bleeding leading to haemorrhagic shock, neurogenic shock as a result of pain and trauma, and overwhelming infection and septicaemia, according to Manfred Nowak, UN Special Rapporteur on Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment.
Almost all women who have undergone FGM experience pain and bleeding as a consequence of the procedure. The event itself is traumatic as girls are held down during the procedure. Risk and complications increase with the type of FGM and are more severe and prevalent with infibulations.
“The pain inflicted by FGM does not stop with the initial procedure, but often continues as ongoing torture throughout a woman’s life”, says Manfred Nowak, UN Special Rapporteur on Torture.
In addition to the severe pain during and in the weeks following the cutting, women who have undergone FGM experience various long-term effects - physical, sexual and psychological.
Women may experience chronic pain, chronic pelvic infections, development of cysts, abscesses and genital ulcers, excessive scar tissue formation, infection of the reproductive system, decreased sexual enjoyment and psychological consequences, such as post-traumatic stress disorder.
Additional risks for complications from infibulations include urinary and menstrual problems, infertility, later surgery (defibulation and reinfibulation) and painful sexual intercourse. Sexual intercourse can only take place after opening the infibulation, through surgery or penetrative sexual intercourse. Consequently, sexual intercourse is frequently painful during the first weeks after sexual initiation and the male partner can also experience pain and complications.
When giving birth, the scar tissue might tear, or the opening needs to be cut to allow the baby to come out. After childbirth, women from some ethnic communities are often sown up again to make them “tight” for their husband (reinfibulation). Such cutting and restitching of a woman’s genitalia results in painful scar tissue.
A multi-country study by WHO in six African countries, showed that women who had undergone FGM, had significantly increased risks for adverse events during childbirth, and that genital mutilation in mothers has negative effects on their newborn babies. According to the study, an additional one to two babies per 100 deliveries die as a result of FGM.


Can a woman Orgasm after FGM By Dr. Charles Bolman
As a gynecologist, I have had some unusual experiences. One was a Muslim patient who wanted to have a re-virgin operation. She explained that she was not a virgin, but was getting married to another Muslim man. And if he found out she wasn't a virgin, she would be killed.

So I merely reconstructed the hymen, and she was happily married.

Not all women have orgasms, even though they are capable. Most times this is an emotional thing, or even ignorance of the sexual act. I know of one patient who came in for an infertility evaluation. This was easily corrected when on pelvic exam it was found that the hymen was intact, but the urethra was dilated to the size of a penis. (Intercourse was not occurring in the vagina, but the urethra).

To the question asked, while there are a tremendous amount of nerve endings in the clitoris, sex is mainly a mental thing, especially for women. I have had patients say they can have orgasms from nipple stimulation.

How individuals experience orgasm varies. For many women, orgasm occurs with clitoral stimulation. There are more nerve endings in the clitoris than in the entire penis and the clitoris's sole function is for pleasure. Removal of the clitoris would eliminate the chance of having this particular type of orgasm. Some women experience orgasms that may be a result of stimulation of the G-Spot, located on the front vaginal wall.Actually the distal third of the vagina is sensitive, while the upper part is not.

There are people who report being able to orgasm from general vaginal stimulation (not G-Spot-specific), labial stimulation, nipple stimulation, and from anal intercourse. 

A great deal of orgasm is related to our imaginations and our thoughts, as well. So, depending on the woman, the type of cutting procedure, how the genitals healed, and myriad psychological and emotional factors, orgasm and other forms sexual pleasure could be experienced by a woman who has experienced genital cutting. However, it's impossible to determine the likelihood of experiencing pleasure or orgasm for any one person because so many factors play a role.

In addition to lack of sensation or physical pain due to cutting, an person may experience distress or anxiety about having sex because of trauma or fear of pain.

The bottom line: While orgasm is indeed pleasurable, and desirable, sex is actually more than a physical act, especially for women. As Robin William's said, "Women need a reason to have sex, men just need a place." Some women just like to be held and to give men pleasure. Sex is different for each couple. But there is certainly no reason you cannot have a good sex life even if the woman can't have an orgasm. 

And if she can't, and this bothers you, you might want to consider the possibility this is your problem, and not hers.

I would think it would be a good idea to undergo couples counseling and discuss this with a professional.




Asad Mahmud

1 comment:

  1. worth reading stats of GENITAL MUTILATION.....
    http://www.jihadwatch.org/2016/02/200-million-women-have-undergone-genital-mutilation-70-million-more-than-previously-thought

    ReplyDelete

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